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Duke Treadmill ScoreMaximum Predicted Heart Rate (DOB)Mets & VO2 (Treadmill)
Maximum Predicted Heart Rate (Age)Max. Predicted Heart Rate AchievedRate Pressure Product

LAP Estimation by Mitral Regurgitation Jet


MR VMax m/s
SBP mmHg

LAP mmHg



Left atrial pressure (LAP) can be estimated by measuring the systolic blood pressure and the maximum mitral regurgitation velocity by spectral Doppler provided that there is no significant gradient across the aortic valve.

LAP = SBP - 4 (MR VMax)2

Variable Definition
MR VMax Maximum mitral regurgitation velocity (m/sec)
SBP Systolic Blood Pressure (mmHg)
LAP Left Atrial Pressure (mmHg)


Gorcscan J, et al. Noninvasive estimation of left atrial pressure in patients with congestive heart failure and mitral regurgitation by Doppler echocardiography. Am Heart J., 121:858, 1991.
Nishimura RA, et al. Determination of left-sided pressure gradients by utilizing Doppler aortic and mitral regurgitant signals: validation by simultaneous dual catheter and Doppler studies. JACC 11:317, 1988.


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