EchocardiographyExercise StressMiscExercise Stress
Duke Treadmill ScoreMaximum Predicted Heart Rate (DOB)Mets & VO2 (Treadmill)
Maximum Predicted Heart Rate (Age)Max. Predicted Heart Rate AchievedRate Pressure Product

dP/dt Isovolumic Phase Index of LV Contractility


Time ms (1-3 m/s MR)

dP/dt mmHg/s
Normal >1200 mmHg/s



The LV contractility dP/dt can be estimated by using time interval between 1 and 3m/sec on MR velocity CW spectrum during isovolumetric contraction i.e. before aortic valve opens when there is no significant change in LA pressure.

dP/dt =

Variable Definition
T Time (1 to 3 m/sec MR) (seconds, s)
dP/dt dP/dt (mmHg/s)
Normal ≥1200 mmHg/s


Bargiggia GS, et al. A. new method for estimating left ventricular dP/dt by continuous wave Doppler echocardiography: Validation studies at cardiac catheterization. Circulation 1989; 80: 1287-1292.
Chung N, et al. Measurement of left ventricular dp/dt by simultaneous Doppler echocardiography and cardiac catheterization. J Am Soc Echocardiogr 1992; 5:147-152.


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