EchocardiographyExercise StressMiscEchocardiography
Aortic Valve Velocity RatioLV EF (Modified Quinones Equation)Myocardial Performance Index (RV)
AVA (Continuity Equation VTI)LV EF (Simplified Quinones Equation)PCWP by E/Ea (Nagueh Formula)
AVA (Continuity Equation VMax)LV Fractional ShorteningPISA (Mitral regurgitation)
dP/dt (LV contractility)LV Mass and LV Mass IndexPISA (Mitral stenosis)
dP/dt (RV contractility)Mitral valve area (PHT)Qp/Qs
Left atrial pressure (MR)Mitral Valvuloplasty Score (MGH)RVSP (TR)
LA Volume (Biplane Method)Modified Bernoulli EquationStroke Volume, Cardiac Output
LV EF (Dumesnil Method)Myocardial Performance Index (LV)
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PISA Method in Quantitating Mitral Regurgitation

Calculation


r cm
Vr cm/s
VMax m/s
VTI cm


VFR mL/s
ERO mm2
RVol mL
Calculate

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Information

Mitral Regurgitation Grade of Severity

ERO (mm2) RVol (mL/beat)
Mild <20 <30
Mild-Moderate 20-29 30-44
Moderate-Severe 30-39 45-59
Severe ≥40 ≥60

PISA (Mitral Regurgitation)

Quantification of mitral regurgitation using the principle of conservation of mass by analyzing the Proximal Isovelocity hemispheric Surface Area of the flow convergence on the ventricular side. This method is more accurate for central regurgitant jets than eccentric jets, and for a circular orifice than a non-circular orifice.

VFR = 2 * π * r2 * Vr
ERO =
VFR
VMax
RVol = ERO * VTI

Variable Definition
Input
2 × π × r2 Proximal isovelocity hemispheric surface area at a radial distance r from the orifice
Vr Aliasing velocity at the radial distance r (cm/s)
VMax Peak velocity of the mitral regurgitant jet (m/s)
VTI VTI of the mitral regurgitant jet (cm)
Output
VFR Volume Flow Rate (mL/s)
ERO Effective Regurgitant Orifice (mm2)
RVol Regurgitant Volume (mL/beat)

References


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