EchocardiographyExercise StressMiscEchocardiography
Aortic Valve Velocity RatioLV EF (Modified Quinones Equation)Myocardial Performance Index (RV)
AVA (Continuity Equation VTI)LV EF (Simplified Quinones Equation)PCWP by E/Ea (Nagueh Formula)
AVA (Continuity Equation VMax)LV Fractional ShorteningPISA (Mitral regurgitation)
dP/dt (LV contractility)LV Mass and LV Mass IndexPISA (Mitral stenosis)
dP/dt (RV contractility)Mitral valve area (PHT)Qp/Qs
Left atrial pressure (MR)Mitral Valvuloplasty Score (MGH)RVSP (TR)
LA Volume (Biplane Method)Modified Bernoulli EquationStroke Volume, Cardiac Output
LV EF (Dumesnil Method)Myocardial Performance Index (LV)

PCWP by E/Ea (Nagueh Formula)


e' (lateral) cm/s
e' (septal) cm/s

e' (average) cm/s



e', the early diastolic velocity of mitral annulus as obtained by tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) of the septal and lateral sides of the mitral annulus behaves as a pre-load-independent index of LV relaxation. Mitral inflow E velocity as obtained by pulsed-wave (PW) Doppler when corrected for the influence of relaxation by using E/e' ratio correlates well to the mean pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) as obtained by simultaneous catheter measurements.

It is preferable to use the average e' velocity obtained from the septal and lateral sides of the mitral annulus for the prediction of LV filling pressures. Because septal e' is usually lower than lateral e' velocity, the E/e’ ratio using septal signals is usually higher than the ratio derived by lateral e', and different cutoff values should be applied on the basis of LV EF, as well as e' location.

E/e' ratio < 8 is usually associated with normal LV filling pressures (PCWP < 15 mmHg), while a ratio > 15 is associated with increased filling pressures (PCWP > 15mmHg). Between 8 and 15, there is a gray zone with overlapping of values for filling pressures.

e' = (e'lateral + e'septal) / 2
PCWP = 1.24 * (E/e') + 1.9

Variable Definition
E Mitral inflow E velocity (m/s or cm/s)
e' (lateral) Early diastolic velocity of lateral mitral annulus (m/s or cm/s)
e' (septal) Early diastolic velocity of medial mitral annulus (m/s or cm/s)
e' Average of the lateral and septal e' values.
E/e' E/Ea ratio
PCWP Mean pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (mmHg)


Nagueh SF, Middleton KJ, Kopelen HA, Zoghbi WA, Quinones MA. Doppler tissue imaging: a noninvasive technique for evaluation of left ventricular relaxation and estimation of filling pressures. J Am Coll Cardiol 1997;30:1527-1533


This calculator has been viewed 224460 times.

Powered by USquareSoft

Author: Dr. Chi-Ming Chow Developer: Edward Brawer Illustrator: Ellen Ho
Copyright © 2005-2011 CardioMath, All Rights Reserved.

Disclaimer: The calculators provided are not meant to be a substitute for professional advise and are not to be used for medical diagnosis. All calculations must be confirmed before clinical use or diagnostic purposes by qualified medical professionals. The authors make no claims of the accuracy of the information contained herein. The authors make no claims whatsoever, expressed or implied, about the authenticity, accuracy, reliability, completeness or timeliness of the material, software, text, graphics and links given. In no event shall the authors, its suppliers, affiliates or any third parties be liable in any manner whatsoever for any damage arising upon use of any information provided.