EchocardiographyExercise StressMiscEchocardiography
Aortic Valve Velocity RatioLV EF (Modified Quinones Equation)Myocardial Performance Index (RV)
AVA (Continuity Equation VTI)LV EF (Simplified Quinones Equation)PCWP by E/Ea (Nagueh Formula)
AVA (Continuity Equation VMax)LV Fractional ShorteningPISA (Mitral regurgitation)
dP/dt (LV contractility)LV Mass and LV Mass IndexPISA (Mitral stenosis)
dP/dt (RV contractility)Mitral valve area (PHT)Qp/Qs
Left atrial pressure (MR)Mitral Valvuloplasty Score (MGH)RVSP (TR)
LA Volume (Biplane Method)Modified Bernoulli EquationStroke Volume, Cardiac Output
LV EF (Dumesnil Method)Myocardial Performance Index (LV)

LV Mass and LV Mass Index


LVEDD mm Height
IVSd mm Weight
PWd mm Gender Male

LV Mass g
LV Mass Index g/m2



Reference Ranges & Partition Values for LV Mass Indexed To BSA (g/m2)

Female Male
Reference Range 43-95 49-115
Mildly Abnormal 96-108 116-131
Moderately Abnormal 109-121 132-148
Severely Abnormal ≥122 ≥149

LV Mass and LV Mass Index

Left ventricular mass and left ventricular mass indexed to body surface area estimated by LV cavity dimension and wall thickness at end-diastole.

Relative wall thickness (RWT) allows further classification of LV mass increase as either concentric hypertrophy (RWT >0.42) or eccentric hypertrophy (RWT ≤0.42).

LV Mass (g) = 0.8{1.04[([LVEDD + IVSd +PWd]3 - LVEDD3)]} + 0.6
2 * PWd

Variable Definition
LVEDD LV end-diastolic dimension (mm)
IVSd Interventricular septal thickness at end-diastole (mm)
PWd Posterior wall thickness at end-diastole (mm)
1.04 Specific gravity of the myocardium (g/cm3)
Weight Weight (kg or lb)
Height Height (cm or in)
LV Mass LV Mass
LVMI LV Mass Indexed to Body Surface Area (g/m2)
RWT Relative wall thickness


Lang RM, et al. Recommendations for chamber quantification. J Am Soc Echocardiogr 2005; 18:1454-7.
Devereux RB, et al. Echocardiographic assessment of left ventricular hypertrophy: comparison to necropsy findings. Am J Cardiol 1986;57:450-8.


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