EchocardiographyExercise StressMiscEchocardiography
Aortic Valve Velocity RatioLV EF (Modified Quinones Equation)Myocardial Performance Index (RV)
AVA (Continuity Equation VTI)LV EF (Simplified Quinones Equation)PCWP by E/Ea (Nagueh Formula)
AVA (Continuity Equation VMax)LV Fractional ShorteningPISA (Mitral regurgitation)
dP/dt (LV contractility)LV Mass and LV Mass IndexPISA (Mitral stenosis)
dP/dt (RV contractility)Mitral valve area (PHT)Qp/Qs
Left atrial pressure (MR)Mitral Valvuloplasty Score (MGH)RVSP (TR)
LA Volume (Biplane Method)Modified Bernoulli EquationStroke Volume, Cardiac Output
LV EF (Dumesnil Method)Myocardial Performance Index (LV)
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LV Fractional Shortening

Calculation


LVEDD mm
LVESD mm


FS %
Normal >25% (M-Mode)
>18% (Direct 2-D measurement)
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Information

Percent change in LV cavity dimensions at the base with systolic contraction. Limited by significant apical wall motion abnormalities.

FS =
LVEDD - LVESD
LVEDD
* 100%

Variable Definition
Input
LVEDD LV end-diastolic dimension (mm)
LVESD LV end-systolic dimension (mm)
Output
FS Fractional Shortening (%)
Normal >25% (M-Mode)
>18% (Direct 2-D measurement)

References

Lang RM, et al. Recommendations for chamber quantification. J Am Soc Echocardiogr 2005; 18:1444.
Lewis RP, et al. Relationship between changes in the left ventricular dimension and ejection fraction in man. Circulation 44:548; 1971.
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Author: Dr. Chi-Ming Chow Developer: Edward Brawer Illustrator: Ellen Ho
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