EchocardiographyExercise StressMiscEchocardiography
Aortic Valve Velocity RatioLV EF (Modified Quinones Equation)Myocardial Performance Index (RV)
AVA (Continuity Equation VTI)LV EF (Simplified Quinones Equation)PCWP by E/Ea (Nagueh Formula)
AVA (Continuity Equation VMax)LV Fractional ShorteningPISA (Mitral regurgitation)
dP/dt (LV contractility)LV Mass and LV Mass IndexPISA (Mitral stenosis)
dP/dt (RV contractility)Mitral valve area (PHT)Qp/Qs
Left atrial pressure (MR)Mitral Valvuloplasty Score (MGH)RVSP (TR)
LA Volume (Biplane Method)Modified Bernoulli EquationStroke Volume, Cardiac Output
LV EF (Dumesnil Method)Myocardial Performance Index (LV)
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LV Ejection Fraction (Modified Quinones Equation)

Calculation


LVEDD mm
LVESD mm
Apex


LVEF %
Normal >55-60 %
Calculate

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Information

The Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction (LV EF) can be determined without planimetry by measuring 8 averaged LV internal dimensions at different levels of the LV in the parasternal long-axis, apical 4 chamber, and long-axis views at end-diastole (LVEDD) and end-systole (LVESD) adjusting for contraction in long-axis. Limited by important wall motion abnormalities and distorted ventricles, e.g. focal aneurysms.

%ΔD2 =
LVEDD2 - LVESD2
LVEDD2
LVEF = (%ΔD2) + [(1-%ΔD2)(%ΔL)]

Variable Definition
Input
LVEDD Averaged LV end-diastolic dimension (mm)
LVESD Averaged LV end-systolic dimension (mm)
%ΔL Correction for apical contraction
+15% Normal apex
+5% Hypokinetic apex
+0% Akinetic apex
-5% Slightly dyskinetic apex
-15% Frankly dyskinectic apex
Output
LVEF Ejection Fraction (%)
Normal >55-60%

References

Quinones MA, et al. A new, simplified and accurate method for determining ejection fraction with two-dimensional echocardiography. Circulation 64:744, 1981.
Information
Illustrations
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Author: Dr. Chi-Ming Chow Developer: Edward Brawer Illustrator: Ellen Ho
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