EchocardiographyExercise StressMiscEchocardiography
Aortic Valve Velocity RatioLV EF (Modified Quinones Equation)Myocardial Performance Index (RV)
AVA (Continuity Equation VTI)LV EF (Simplified Quinones Equation)PCWP by E/Ea (Nagueh Formula)
AVA (Continuity Equation VMax)LV Fractional ShorteningPISA (Mitral regurgitation)
dP/dt (LV contractility)LV Mass and LV Mass IndexPISA (Mitral stenosis)
dP/dt (RV contractility)Mitral valve area (PHT)Qp/Qs
Left atrial pressure (MR)Mitral Valvuloplasty Score (MGH)RVSP (TR)
LA Volume (Biplane Method)Modified Bernoulli EquationStroke Volume, Cardiac Output
LV EF (Dumesnil Method)Myocardial Performance Index (LV)

Left Atrial Volume (Biplane Area-Length Method)


A1 cm2 Height
A2 cm2 Weight
L mm

LA Volume mL
LAVI mL/m2



Reference Ranges & Partition Values for LA Volume Index (mL/m2)

LAVI (mL/m2)
Reference Range 16-28
Mildly Abnormal 29-33
Moderately Abnormal 34-39
Severely Abnormal ≥40

LA Volume & LA Volume Index (Biplane Area-Length Method)

When left atrial (LA) size is measured clinically, LA volume determinations are preferred over linear measurements since they allow more accurate assessment of the asymmetric remodeling of the LA chamber. Moreover, the strength of the relationship between cardiovascular diseases is stronger for LA volume than for LA linear dimensions.

LA size should be measured at the end-ventricular systole (maximum LA size). Foreshortening should be avoided. When planimetry is performed, LA confluences of the pulmonary veins and the LA appendage should be excluded. The length, L, remains the LA long-axis length determined as the distance of the perpendicular line measured from the middle of the plane of the mitral annulus to the superior aspect of the LA. In the area-length formula the length is measured in both the 4- and 2-chamber views and the shortest of these 2 length measurements is used in the formula.

Although there are gender differences in LA size, these are completely accounted for once indexed to body size, such as body surface area (BSA).

LA Volume
A1 * A2
= (0.85) *
A1 * A2
LA Volume

Variable Definition
A1 Max. planimetered LA area in apical 4-chamber (A4C) view
A2 Max. planimetered LA area in apical 2-chamber (A2C) view
L Length measured from back wall to line across mitral valve hinge points (cm)
Weight Weight (kg or lb)
Height Height (cm or in)
LA Volume Left Atrial Volume
LAVI Left atrial volume indexed to Body Surface Area (BSA)


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