EchocardiographyExercise StressMiscEchocardiography
Aortic Valve Velocity RatioLV EF (Modified Quinones Equation)Myocardial Performance Index (RV)
AVA (Continuity Equation VTI)LV EF (Simplified Quinones Equation)PCWP by E/Ea (Nagueh Formula)
AVA (Continuity Equation VMax)LV Fractional ShorteningPISA (Mitral regurgitation)
dP/dt (LV contractility)LV Mass and LV Mass IndexPISA (Mitral stenosis)
dP/dt (RV contractility)Mitral valve area (PHT)Qp/Qs
Left atrial pressure (MR)Mitral Valvuloplasty Score (MGH)RVSP (TR)
LA Volume (Biplane Method)Modified Bernoulli EquationStroke Volume, Cardiac Output
LV EF (Dumesnil Method)Myocardial Performance Index (LV)

LAP Estimation by Mitral Regurgitation Jet


MR VMax m/s
SBP mmHg

LAP mmHg



Left atrial pressure (LAP) can be estimated by measuring the systolic blood pressure and the maximum mitral regurgitation velocity by spectral Doppler provided that there is no significant gradient across the aortic valve.

LAP = SBP - 4 (MR VMax)2

Variable Definition
MR VMax Maximum mitral regurgitation velocity (m/sec)
SBP Systolic Blood Pressure (mmHg)
LAP Left Atrial Pressure (mmHg)


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