EchocardiographyExercise StressMiscEchocardiography
Aortic Valve Velocity RatioLV EF (Modified Quinones Equation)Myocardial Performance Index (RV)
AVA (Continuity Equation VTI)LV EF (Simplified Quinones Equation)PCWP by E/Ea (Nagueh Formula)
AVA (Continuity Equation VMax)LV Fractional ShorteningPISA (Mitral regurgitation)
dP/dt (LV contractility)LV Mass and LV Mass IndexPISA (Mitral stenosis)
dP/dt (RV contractility)Mitral valve area (PHT)Qp/Qs
Left atrial pressure (MR)Mitral Valvuloplasty Score (MGH)RVSP (TR)
LA Volume (Biplane Method)Modified Bernoulli EquationStroke Volume, Cardiac Output
LV EF (Dumesnil Method)Myocardial Performance Index (LV)

dP/dt Isovolumic Phase Index of LV Contractility


Time ms (1-3 m/s MR)

dP/dt mmHg/s
Normal >1200 mmHg/s



The LV contractility dP/dt can be estimated by using time interval between 1 and 3m/sec on MR velocity CW spectrum during isovolumetric contraction i.e. before aortic valve opens when there is no significant change in LA pressure.

dP/dt =

Variable Definition
T Time (1 to 3 m/sec MR) (seconds, s)
dP/dt dP/dt (mmHg/s)
Normal ≥1200 mmHg/s


Bargiggia GS, et al. A. new method for estimating left ventricular dP/dt by continuous wave Doppler echocardiography: Validation studies at cardiac catheterization. Circulation 1989; 80: 1287-1292.
Chung N, et al. Measurement of left ventricular dp/dt by simultaneous Doppler echocardiography and cardiac catheterization. J Am Soc Echocardiogr 1992; 5:147-152.


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