The Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction (LV EF) can be determined without planimetry by measuring 8 averaged LV internal dimensions at different levels of the LV in the parasternal long-axis, apical 4 chamber, and long-axis views at end-diastole (LVEDD) and end-systole (LVESD) adjusting for contraction in long-axis. Limited by important wall motion abnormalities and distorted ventricles, e.g. focal aneurysms.
LVEDD2 - LVESD2
(%ΔD2) + [(1-%ΔD2)(%ΔL)]
Averaged LV end-diastolic dimension (mm)
Averaged LV end-systolic dimension (mm)
Correction for apical contraction
+15% Normal apex
+5% Hypokinetic apex
+0% Akinetic apex
-5% Slightly dyskinetic apex
-15% Frankly dyskinectic apex
Ejection Fraction (%)
Quinones MA, et al. A new, simplified and accurate method for determining ejection fraction with two-dimensional echocardiography. Circulation 64:744, 1981.
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